Cyborgs

Part 3 of 5 in the series Biotech

Science has given us a whole new toolbox for tinkering with life, and we have the power to modify animals in profound new ways. — Frankenstein’s Cat (2013)

“In the 1950’s, Tulane psychiatrist Robert G. Heath and coworkers engaged in studies of the human brain that were sponsored by U.S. government agencies and included black prisoners among its experimental subjects,” reports the Tulanelink.com website. “The experiments were conducted by psychiatrist Dr. Robert Heath from Tulane University and an Australian psychiatrist, Dr. Harry Bailey, who boasted in a lecture to nurses 20 years later that the two psychiatrists had used blacks because it was ‘cheaper to use [explicative deleted] than cats because they were everywhere and cheap experimental animals,’ notes an arm of Church of Scientology quoted there. Also noted are Clarence L. Moohr and Joseph E. Gordon who explain:

Over the span of a quarter century, Heath and his colleagues would operate on more than sixty patients, implanting as many as 125 electrodes in the skull of a single individual and developing methods that allowed electrodes to remain in place for years at a time. Eventually, technological innovations such as external push-button self-stimulators and miniature surgically implanted electrical pacemakers were employed as therapeutic devices [Clarence L. Mohr and Joseph E. Gordon, Tulane: The Emergence of a Modern University, 1945 – 1980, Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, 2001, p. 119].13

“Heath and his team measured the patient’s brainwaves,” notes Frank Swain in How to Make a Zombie: The Real Life (and Death) Science of Reanimation and Mind Control:

They found that patients in the midst of a psychotic rage or catatonic stupor showed patterns of brain activity markedly different from those of healthy people. “By implanting electrodes and taking recordings from these deep-lying areas, we were able to localize the brain’s pleasure and pain systems,” Heath reported. “We’d interview a patient about pleasant subjects and see the pleasure system firing. If we had a patient who flew into a rage attack, as many psychotics did, we’d find the ‘punishment’ system firing.” Perhaps most importantly, Heath discovered that the pleasure and pain pathways operated in opposition – when one was activated, the other suppressed: a binary system. All one had to do to suppress violent episodes in schizophrenic patients was to use electrodes to stimulate the pleasure zone in the brain.14

Heath “equipped dangerously aggressive mental patients with self-stimulators,” writes Vance Packard in his 1977 book The People Shapers. “A film shows a patient working himself out of a violent mood by pushing his stimulator button.” 15

Mind Hacks reports on Heath in “Erotic self-stimulation and brain implants”:

In 1972, he undertook a notorious study where he implanted electrodes into the brain of a consenting 24-year-old gay male who had been repeatedly hospitalized for chronic suicidal depression and found to have temporal lobe epilepsy.

The brain implant was specifically introduced for non-sexual reasons but Heath decided to test whether pleasurable brain stimulation would encourage the man, known only as B-19, to engage in heterosexual sexual activity with a prostitute.

The study was a ‘success’ but has become infamous as one of the more distasteful episodes in the history of ‘gay conversion therapy’, which is quite hard going in a field that is well-known for its distasteful episodes.16

John A. Osmundsen, 'Matador' With a Radio Stops Wired Bull, The New York Times, 17 May 1965

José Delgado with bull (1 of 2)
 
José Delgado with bull (2 of 2)
 
 
Star Trek cybernetic baby

The 17 May 1965 edition of The New York Times front page article “‘Matador’ With a Radio Stops Wired Bull” features “Dr. José M. R. Delgado of Yale University’s School of Medicine facing a charging bull” halted mid-charge by electronic remote control. “The experiment, conducted last year in 1964 in Cordova, Spain, by Dr. Delgado of Yale University’s School of Medicine, was probably the most spectacular demonstration ever performed of the deliberate modification of animal behavior through external control of the brain”:

Dr. Delgado’s contention that brain research has reached a stage of refinement where it can contribute to the solution of some of these problems is based he said, on many of his own experiments.

These have shown, he explained, that “functions traditionally related to the psyche, such as friendliness, pleasure or verbal expression, can be induced, modified and inhibited by direct electrical stimulation of the brain.”

For example, he has been able to “play” monkeys and cats “like little electronic toys” that yawn, hide, fight, play, mate and go to sleep on command.

And with humans under treatment for epilepsy, he has increased word output sixfold in one person, has produced severe anxiety in another, and in several others has induced feelings of profound friendliness—all by electrical stimulation of various specific regions of their brains.…

In 1932, Dr. W. R. Hess of Switzerland used a similar setup to stimulate various cerebral regions in conscious cats. He showed that electrical currents could influence the animal’s posture, balance, movement and such basic psychic manifestations as fear and rage.

For some still unexplained reason, those techniques were not used much by biologists until the early nineteen fifties. Then important development in brain surgery, psychosomatic medicine, psychopharmacology and physiological psychology turned the attention of scientists to electrical exploration of the brain.

Of all the scientists who are working in this area, however, Dr. Delgado appears to be have been the only one using radio to stimulate animals’ brains, with special attention to effects on social behavior. He also makes use of telemetry in studying physiological activity in brains and other organs.17

 

In 1985, CNN Military affairs specialist Chuck DeCaro discusses Delgado’s past and present experiments using Electromagnetic Mind Control, explaining that “Electronic mind-control research is not new”:

A scientific milestone in this area came in the 1960s when Dr. Jose Delgado demonstrated remote control over a charging bull. By connecting a radio antenna to electrodes inserted into the bull’s brain, Delgado proved that the animal’s aggressive impulses could be thwarted by electronically manipulating the bull’s muscle reflexes.

Delgado – Do you realize the fantastic possibilities if from the outside we could modify the inside; could we give messages to the inside? But the beauty is that now we are not using electrodes.

DeCaro – In recent years Delgado has shown that the behavior of monkeys can be altered using low-power pulsing magnetic fields. But in these experiments, there were no antenna implants.

Delgado – Any function in the brain – emotions, intellect, personality – could we perhaps modify by this non-invasive technology.

DeCaro – Delgado’s research has so far been limited to animals. But in the Soviet Union a radio frequency, or RF, device has been used for over 30 years to manipulate the moods of mental patients [referring to a Lida machine].18

Delgado's stimoceiver

Delgado’s 1969 treatise Physical Control of the Mind: Toward a Psychocivilized Society (read it at Scribd.com) describes brain implant research during the analog computer era. Delgado’s experiments using electrical stimulation of the brain evoked “elaborate responses”:

For example, in one of our patients, electrical stimulation of the rostral part of the internal capsule produced head turning and slow displacement of the body to either side with a well-oriented and apparently normal sequence, as if the patient were looking for something. This stimulation was repeated six times on two different days with comparable results. The interesting fact was that the patient considered the evoked activity spontaneous and always offered a reasonable explanation for it. When asked “What are you doing?” the answers were, “I am looking for my slippers,” “I heard a noise,” “I am restless,” and “I was looking under the bed.” In this case it was difficult to ascertain whether the stimulation had evoked a movement which the patient tried to justify, or if an hallucination had been elicited which subsequently induced the patient to move and to explore the surroundings.19

“In one dramatic experiment, temporal lobe stimulation caused a calm epileptic woman playing a guitar to slam her instrument against a wall,” reports Keith Veronese for the io9 website.20

Other brain implant studies have shown that animals including humans given the ability to self-stimulate their brain’s pleasure centers will starve to death rather than take time to eat.21

“To this day, Delgado’s is the only popular book on the subject of implants and electrical stimulation of the brain,” writes Jim Keith in Mind Control, World Control.22

Continue to page 3 »


13 “Changing People’s Minds, Tulane Style: A Tale From Two Perspectives,” Tulanelink.com, at http://www.tulanelink.com/tulanelink/twoviews_04a.htm (retrieved: 7 December 2013).

14 Frank Swain, How to Make a Zombie: The Real Life (and Death) Science of Reanimation and Mind Control (London: Oneworld, 2013), p. 133.

15 Vance Packard, The People Shapers (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1977), p. 45.

16 vaughanbell, “Erotic self-stimulation and brain implants,” MindHacks.com, 16 September 2008, at http://mindhacks.com/2008/09/16/erotic-self-stimulation-and-brain-implants/ (retrieved: 26 March 2015).

17 John A. Osmundsen, “‘Matador’ With a Radio Stops Wired Bull,” The New York Times, 17 May 1965, CXIV(39,195), pp. 1, 20.

18 Electro-Magnetic Mind Control Weapons, transcript, CNN: Special Assignment, WorldAviation.info, at http://iron-eagles.tripod.com/articles/emmc.htm (retrieved: 7 December 2013).

19 José M.R. Delgado, M.D., Physical Control of the Mind: Toward a Psychocivilized Society (New York, NY: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1969), pp. 115-116; See also https://www.scribd.com/doc/142597107/Jose-Delgado-Physical-Control-of-the-Mind (retrieved: 26 June 2016).

20 Keith Veronese, “The Scientist Who Controlled People with Brain Implants,” i09, 28 December 2011, at http://io9.com/5871598/the-scientist-who-controlled-peoples-minds-with-fm-radio-frequencies/+keithveronese (retrieved: 20 September 2014).

21 Norman D. Livergood, “Brain, Mind, and Altered States of Consciousness,” at http://www.hermes-press.com/altstates.htm (retrieved: 25 March 2011); See also: Professor Kevin Warwick, I, Cyborg (London: Century, 2002), p. 110.

22 Jim Keith, Mind Control, World Control (Kempton, IL: Adventures Unlimited Press, 1998), p. 130.

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  • January 30, 2014 - 11:47 am | Permalink

    “Such findings were one reason Delgado set up a testing area on a one-and-a-half acre island in the Bermudas.” — Vance Packard, People Shapers (Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company, 1977), p. 45.

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