LSD

Part 5 of 12 in the series Snake Oil

Snake oil salesmen would falsely claim that the potions would cure any ailments. – UrbanDictionary.com

Research has been conducted using the hallucinogenic drug lysergic acid diethylamide (or LSD) first synthesized in 1938 by Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann. His LSD-25 was derived from ergot, a fungus that attacks rye grain. Ergot poisoning has been proposed as the cause of so-called werewolf epidemics which led to more than 30,000 related court cases in France alone between the years 1520 and 1630,1 according to the Monstrous.com website. Ergotism has also been associated with the Salem Witch Trials of 1692 by New York’s Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute student Linnda Caporael.2

Bicycle Day 1943

Some LSD users celebrate 19 April 1943 as “Bicycle Day” when Hofmann “intentionally ingest[ed] 0.25 miligrams (250 micrograms) of the substance, an amount he predicted to be a threshold dose (an actual threshold dose is 20 micrograms3),” writes Wikipedia.

Less than an hour later, Hofmann experienced sudden and intense changes in perception. He asked his laboratory assistant to escort him home and, as use of motor vehicles was prohibited because of wartime restrictions, they had to make the journey on a bicycle. On the way, Hofmann’s condition rapidly deteriorated as he struggled with feelings of anxiety, alternatingly believing the next-door neighbor was a malevolent witch, that he was going insane, and the LSD had poisoned him. When the house doctor arrived, however, he could detect no physical abnormalities, save for a pair of incredibly dilated pupils.

Hofmann later wrote:

Little by little I could begin to enjoy the unprecedented colors and plays of shapes that persisted behind my closed eyes. Kaleidoscopic, fantastic images surged in on me, alternating, variegated, opening and then closing themselves in circles and spirals, exploding in colored fountains, rearranging and hybridizing themselves in constant flux.4

Mickey Mouse on brown acid

Military experiments regarding LSD’s effects as a potential weapon were filmed. Archive footage of tests on British5 and American6 soldiers is available online and included below. The American Military video includes the production of chemtrailsi to be released from aircraft. According to the brief documentary, “the idea was to spray the drug on enemy troops; the dose, however, proved rather difficult to control.” 7

Medical LSD

The website Holysmoke.org reports that “a favorite plan, during Helms’ administration at the CIA, involved slipping “P-1” (the code name for LSD when used operationally) to socialist or left-leaning politicians in foreign countries so that they would babble incoherently and discredit themselves in public.” 8

Wikipedia reports on the 1953 alleged LSD-related death of US Army Special Operations Division biological and Mind Control weapons chemist Frank Olson:

According to the government’s version of events, as part of the MKULTRA mind control experiments, Olson was dosed with LSD without his knowledge, subsequently suffering severe paranoia and a nervous breakdown.… Olson purportedly threw himself out his tenth-floor hotel room window, dying on impact.… In 1994, [a forensic scientist at George Washington University] determined that Olson had suffered some form of blunt force trauma prior to falling out of the window, and called the evidence “rankly and starkly suggestive of homicide.” 9

“Olson was a bioweapons expert at Fort Detrick, the Army’s biological weapons research center in Maryland,” writes the Associated Press. Sons Eric and Nils Olson sued the government 28 November 2012. “Their lawsuit claims the CIA killed Olson when he developed misgivings after witnessing extreme interrogations in which they allege the CIA committed murder using biological agents Olson had developed.” 10

In a 1975 memo from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command to the president of the University of Maryland (included below), “the US Army sponsored studies of LSD at Army installations and by contracts in civilian institutions between 1955 and 1967.” The Army was seeking information on whether any follow up studies were conducted as well as the “names, current address, and…Social Security Account Number of individuals who received LSD as part of the Army contracted LSD studies.” 11

Lawrence Galton notes in “Why Young Adults Crack Up” at The Huxley Institute for Biosocial Research of a substance tested in conjunction with LSD:

In 1957, Dr. Robert Heath and a team of Tulane University investigators reported the discovery in the blood of schizophrenics of a strange substance to which they gave the name taraxein. Injected into monkeys, taraxein produced brain-wave changes similar to those in chronic schizophrenics. Given to normal human volunteers, it induced temporary schizophrenic-like behavior.

Because the exact nature of taraxein was not known and the substance had not been isolated in pure form but remained bound up with a fraction of blood called globulin, there was a problem. Dr. Heath and his co-workers went on to try to purify taraxein and to learn more about it.12

Exhibit A Memo for followup LSD studies from U.S. Army to University of Maryland
Memo for follow-up LSD studies from U.S. Army to Wilson H. Elkins of the University of Maryland

Notes

i “chemtrails,” in H.R. 2977, Section 7 Definitions, Subsections 2-B-ii, Space Preservation Act of 2001 (Introduced in House – IH), 107th Congress, 1st Session, 2 October 2001, at http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c107%3AH.R.2977.IH: (retrieved: 10 September 2012).

Sources

1 “Ergot poisoning,” Monstrous.com, at http://werewolves.monstrous.com/ergot_poisoning.htm (retrieved: 26 March 2011).

2 “Ergot Poisoning – the cause of the Salem Witch Trials,” PBS “Secrets of the Dead II” – Witches Curse, at The Tortoise Shell: The “Puzzle Box” for Life Science Information, http://www.hbci.com/~wenonah/history/ergot.htm (retrieved: 26 March 2011).

3 Erowid, “LSD Dosage,” The Vaults of Erowid, at http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/lsd/lsd_dose.shtml (retrieved: 26 March 2011).

4 “History of LSD,” Wikipedia.org, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_LSD (retrieved: 26 March 2008).

5 “LSD Testing (British Troops),” HarmonicSquire video at YouTube.com, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n-rWnQphPdQ (retrieved: 226 March 2011). (Show video)

6 “American military LSD experiment,” FabrizioA video at YouTube.com, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bbHve0Ei3w0 (retrieved: 26 March 2011). (Show video)

7 Op. cit.

8 Beatrice Devereaux, “THE CIA, LSD AND THE 60S REBELLION,” a review of the book “Acid Dreams” by Martin A. Lee and Bruce Shlain, publisher, Grove Press, at http://www.holysmoke.org/wb/wb0049.htm (retrieved: 26 March 2011).

9 “Frank Olson,” Wikipedia.org, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Olson (retrieved: 22 October 2008).

10 Associated Press, “Family sues U.S. over scientist’s mysterious 1953 death,” THonline.com, 29 November 2012, at http://www.thonline.com/news/national_world/article_bfb191e1-afe5-58bc-a669-24e38f752439.html (retrieved: 19 December 2012).

11 See Exhibit A.

12 Lawrence Galton, “Why Young Adults Crack Up,” The Huxley Institute for Biosocial Research, at http://www.schizophrenia.org/crackup.html (Retrieved: 26 March 2011).

See also

MELANDER B, MARTENS S. The mode of action of taraxein and LSD. Dis Nerv Syst. 1958 Nov;19(11):478-9, at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ (retrieved: March 2006); See also: B. Melander and S. Martens, “The mode of action of taraxein and LSD,” Dis. Nerv. Syst. 1958, Lycaeum.org, at http://www.lycaeum.org/research/index.rbx?id=1708 (retrieved: 26 March 2011); PDF version at http://www.lycaeum.org/research/researchpdfs/0591.pdf (retrieved: 26 March 2011) and mirror at http://skewsme.com/pdf/the-mode-of-action-of-taraxein-and-lsd.pdf (retrieved: 8 November 2012).

Kate Wighton, “The brain on LSD revealed: first scans show how the drug affects the brain,” Imperial College London, 11 April 2016, at http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/newsandeventspggrp/imperialcollege/newssummary/news_11-4-2016-17-21-2 (retrieved: 12 April 2016).

Kevin Crosby, LSD Testing (news group), Yahoo Groups, at http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/lsd_testing/ (retrieved: 26 March 2011).

Related videos

“National Geographic Inside LSD,” Frank video at YouTube.com, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r3CbfMuR2YA (retrieved: 4 January 2013). (Show video)

“LSD Experiment – “Schizophrenia Psychosis” Induced by LSD25 1955 CIA Funded (MKULTRA?),” Propaganda Time video at YouTube.com, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M7fOuPTZtWI (retrieved: 17 February 2014). (Show video)

“rare footage of 1950s housewife in LSD experiment,” DomesticShmomestic video at YouTube.com, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BTjRi0x2Cyg (retrieved: 17 February 2014). (Show video)

“No Mas Presents: Dock Ellis & The LSD No-No by James Blagden,” NoMasTV video at YouTube.com, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_vUhSYLRw14 (retrieved: 3 July 2014). (Show video)

“Mission Mind Control (1979),” Nuclear Vault video at YouTube.com, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DMH5WgGFxlc (retrieved: 20 March 2015). (Show video)

“The Brown Acid is Bad – Woodstock Vinyl LP,” Dom Boileau video at YouTube.com, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hKoLlKmQSHU (retrieved: 19 December 2012). (Show video)

“LSD Tested on Cat – 1960 US Army Film – Acid Considered For Military Use,” Propaganda Time video at YouTube.com, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8UPLEwK70XA (retrieved: 17 February 2014). (Show video)

“Cat on LSD,” jankstarrk video at YouTube.com, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EJEw3A_QO9o (retrieved: 1 September 2012). (Show video)

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